), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbor Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776.The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city.The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook.The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century. S.-backed coup occurred which forced Isabel Martínez de Perón from power and installed a right-wing military dictatorship under Jorge Rafael Videla known as the National Reorganization Process, which lasted until the transition to democracy in 1983; the military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism which lasted until the junta's dissolution.Public dissent and anger over the dictatorship's repressions led to a transition to democracy in 1983 when Raúl Alfonsín was elected President; several of the junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies.
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It is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of "very high".In English the name "Argentina" probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian.Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" -in).The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Argentina Terra "land of silver" or Argentina costa "coast of silver".
In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina (It cannot be for the proper noun in French for example).
The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto.